Organizational Legitimacy Under Conditions of Complexity: The Case of the Multinational Enterprise Author s:
Overview[ edit ] Definitions of complexity often depend on the concept of a confidential " system " — a set of parts or elements that have relationships among them differentiated from relationships with other elements outside the relational regime.
Many definitions tend to postulate or assume that complexity expresses a condition of numerous elements in a system and numerous forms of relationships among the elements. However, what one sees as complex and what one sees as simple is relative and changes with time.
Warren Weaver posited in two forms of complexity: Some definitions relate to the algorithmic basis for the expression of a complex phenomenon or model or mathematical expression, as later set out herein. Weaver perceived and addressed this problem, in at least a preliminary way, in drawing a distinction between "disorganized complexity" and "organized complexity".
In Weaver's view, disorganized complexity results from the particular system having a very large number of parts, say millions of parts, or many more. Though the interactions of the parts in a "disorganized complexity" situation can be seen as largely random, the properties of the system as a whole can be understood by using probability and statistical methods.
A prime example of disorganized complexity is a gas in a container, with the gas molecules as the parts. Some would suggest that a system of disorganized complexity may be compared with the relative simplicity of planetary orbits — the latter can be predicted by applying Newton's laws of motion.
Of course, most real-world systems, including planetary orbits, eventually become theoretically unpredictable even using Newtonian dynamics; as discovered by modern chaos theory.
These correlated relationships create a differentiated structure that can, as a system, interact with other systems. The coordinated system manifests properties not carried or dictated by individual parts. The organized aspect of this form of complexity vis-a-vis to other systems than the subject system can be said to "emerge," without any "guiding hand".
The number of parts does not have to be very large for a particular system to have emergent properties. A system of organized complexity may be understood in its properties behavior among the properties through modeling and simulationparticularly modeling and simulation with computers.
An example of organized complexity is a city neighborhood as a living mechanism, with the neighborhood people among the system's parts. The source of disorganized complexity is the large number of parts in the system of interest, and the lack of correlation between elements in the system.
In the case of self-organizing living systems, usefully organized complexity comes from beneficially mutated organisms being selected to survive by their environment for their differential reproductive ability or at least success over inanimate matter or less organized complex organisms.
Robert Ulanowicz 's treatment of ecosystems. For instance, for many functions problemssuch a computational complexity as time of computation is smaller when multitape Turing machines are used than when Turing machines with one tape are used.
Random Access Machines allow one to even more decrease time complexity Greenlaw and Hoover This shows that tools of activity can be an important factor of complexity.
Varied meanings[ edit ] In several scientific fields, "complexity" has a precise meaning:Organizational Legitimacy under Conditions of Complexity: The Case of the Multinational Enterprise Author(s): Tatiana Kostova and Srilata Zaheer. 5 U.S.C.
United States Code, Edition Title 5 - GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES PART I - THE AGENCIES GENERALLY From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, plombier-nemours.com PART I—THE AGENCIES GENERALLY. We suggest that under conditions of institutional complexity corporations are likely to apply dif- ferent legitimacy strategies at the same time and develop organizational prerequisites that support the simultaneous application of various response strategies.
John Bertot, Elsa Estevez and Sehl Mellouli the 9th International Conference ICEGOV ' Montevideo, Uruguay Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance - ICEGOV ' Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance ACM Press New York, New York, USA, ().
This research investigated the link between ethical leadership and performance using data from the People’s Republic of China.
Consistent with social exchange, social learning, and social identity theories, we examined leader–member exchange (LMX), self-efficacy, and organizational identification as mediators of the ethical leadership to performance relationship.
Organizational legitimacy under conditions of complexity: The case of the multinational enterprise. Academy of Management Review, 24, Google Scholar: Kotha, S., & Nair, A.
(). Strategy and environment as determinants of performance: Evidence from the Japanese machine tool industry. Strategic Management Journal, 16,