By Jessica Ruvinsky November 6, 1:
Compared with the DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, the DSM-5 diagnosis of ASD no longer includes communication as a separate criterion, and has merged social interaction and communication into one category.
Some have proposed that individuals on the autism spectrum may be better represented as a single diagnostic category. Within this category, the DSM-5 has proposed a framework of differentiating each individual by dimensions of severity, as well as associated features i.
Another change to the DSM includes collapsing social and communication deficits into one domain. Thus, an individual with an ASD diagnosis will be described in terms of severity of social communication symptoms, severity of fixated or restricted behaviors or interests, and associated features.
The restricting of onset age has also been loosened from 3 years of age to "early developmental period", with a note that symptoms may manifest later when social demands exceed capabilities. Asperger syndrome is closest to autism in signs and likely causes;  unlike autism, people with Asperger syndrome usually have no significant delay in language developmentaccording to the older DSM-4 criteria.
Some sources also include Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorderwhich share several signs with autism but may have unrelated causes; other sources differentiate them from ASD, but group all of the above conditions into the pervasive developmental disorders.
These deficits are present in early childhood, and lead to clinically significant functional impairment. Some of the early signs of ASDs in this course include decreased looking at faces, failure to turn when name is called, failure to show interests by showing or pointing, and delayed pretend play.
Regression may occur in a variety of domains, including communication, social, cognitive, and self-help skills; however, the most common regression is loss of language.
Some studies suggest that regression is associated with poorer outcomes and others report no differences between those with early gradual onset and those who experience a regression period. This leads to problems with friendships, romantic relationships, daily living, and vocational success. Many of these challenges are linked to their atypical patterns of behavior and communication.
All of these issues stem from cognitive impairments. Difficulties in this thought process is called "theory of the mind" or mind blindness which translates that the mind has difficulty with thought process as well as being aware of what is going on around them.
They may not pick up on body language or may ignore cues such as eye contact and facial expressions if they provide more information than the person can process at that time. Similarly, they have trouble recognizing subtle expressions of emotion and identifying what various emotions mean for the conversation.
They struggle with understanding the context and subtext of conversational or printed situations, and have trouble forming resulting conclusions about the content. This also results in a lack of social awareness and atypical language expression.
Often children with ASD repeat certain words, numbers, or phrases during an interaction, words unrelated to the topic of conversation. They can also exhibit a condition called echolalia in which they respond to a question by repeating the inquiry instead of answering. Causes of autism While specific causes of autism spectrum disorders have yet to be found, many risk factors identified in the research literature may contribute to their development.
These risk factors include genetics, prenatal and perinatal factors, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and environmental factors.
It is possible to identify general risk factors, but much more difficult to pinpoint specific factors. In the current state of knowledge, prediction can only be of a global nature and therefore requires the use of general markers.
The most common gene disrupted with large effect rare variants appeared to be CHD8but less than 0. These risk factors include maternal gestational diabetesmaternal and paternal age over 30, bleeding after first trimester, use of prescription medication e. While research is not conclusive on the relation of these factors to autism, each of these factors has been identified more frequently in children with autism compared to their non-autistic siblings and other typically developing youth.
MMR vaccine controversy Perhaps the most controversial claim regarding autism etiology was the " vaccine controversy ".
This finding coincides with reports demonstrating abnormal patterns of cortical thickness and grey matter volume in those regions of autistic persons' brains.
Mirror neuron The mirror neuron system MNS consists of a network of brain areas that have been associated with empathy processes in humans.We identified, summarized, and appraised the certainty of evidence for 12 studies investigating the use of music therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
The studies were. The effects of music therapy for older people with dementia [Review of the literature review Music therapy]. The British Nursing (BJN), 19(2), Music therapy provides an opportunity for anybody to make a relationship with a trained music therapist where aspects of problems or difficulties can be addressed.
Music Therapy Autism Literature Review Words | 13 Pages Individuals with autism show equal or increased abilities in pitch processing, labeling of emotions in music, and musical preference when compared to typically‐developing peers.
The Effectiveness of Music Therapy in Treating Children with Autism: A Literature Review Abstract This literature review explores the use of music therapy in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and its degree of effectiveness in helping children to better develop social and communication skills.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both general terms for a group The study utilized case studies and testimonies, and even articles about Music Therapy with autistic children.
Music therapy in the Philippines is still relatively growing LITERATURE REVIEW.
The majority of music therapy work with children takes . moderate to severe autism through the use of music therapy. Music therapy is an emerging therapy and is emerging as a related service offered at a child’s IEP.