Gerberg critical response

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Gerberg critical response

Artificial feeders are frequently used for blood feeding in the laboratory Higgs and Beaty ; while some mosquito species feed successfully, others are recalcitrant, that is, Ae. A colony of Ae. Ooi and colleagues investigated local membrane sources, including skin of chicken, fish, cattle, and salted sausage, and reported that Ae.

We observed increased feeding success on an artificial glass feeder using bovine collagen sausage membrane compared to lambskin; Ae. By challenging mosquitoes with several variables, we attempted to identify strategies for improving feeding success on artificial feeders. Two successive generations of Ae.

Gentle motion did not significantly improve feeding and was discontinued Fig. Variables such as smelly socks Schmied et al. Increased success was observed after providing sausage casing blood packets in different feeding positions Fig. Feeding improvement for Ae.

Imbibing blood depends on insect suck-and-spit Gerberg critical response pharyngeal pumpsmidgut integrity and capacity stretch receptorsgripping ability intact tarsalsfeeding physiology, vertebrate host cues, and a conundrum of environmental factors Clements ; we propose that gravity plays a role.

In Model 1blood was pumped downward and then flowed parallel to the substratum upside-down feeding. In Model 2blood was pumped upward and then flowed parallel to the substratum right side-up feeding or was pumped parallel to the substratum and then flowed downward nose-up feeding as in Model 3.

Large horizontal and vertical packets large and small provided a nose-up feeding position, a more normal stance facilitating the downward flow of blood. Compared with the traditional upside-down feeding position, improvement was documented in Ae. The large horizontal packet Model 2A provided for two feeding positions and more surface area 63 cm2 than the small horizontal packet Model 2B ; 28 cm2.

Gerberg critical response

Small horizontal packets resulted in significantly reduced feeding success for both mosquito species and we suspect its acute radius of curvature promoted right-side up over nose-up feeding positions.

The greater surface area of the large horizontal packet promoted nose-up feeding, but we suggest that because a vertical position was available that feeding was also facilitated by gravity.

Differences in blood feeding success in response to feeding position further separates the behavior attributes of these two Aedine species. Blood feeding on a vertebrate is a dangerous activity, the degree of which increases with the volume of blood consumed at the feeding site as well as the postfeeding site Roitberg et al.

An engorged mosquito faces a greater risk of fatality due to an increased body mass, and because insects usually fly right side-up, it has been suggested that they can determine gravity. Bender and Frye propose that this may not require active sensation; for example, a mosquito with a heavy abdomen will be inclined to maintain a nose-up posture.

Hence, glass feeders that restrict females to an awkward upside-down feeding position are not conducive to blood meal consumption. A study by Self and colleagues examined indoor biting behavior of Culex pippins fatigans on adult Burmase males.

When human subjects were positioned in a sitting manner, an average of When subjects were positioned lying down, an average of These authors speculated that the biting behavior of C.

Aside from available surface area and gravity, differences in feeding success seen in Model 1 might be accounted for by anatomical differences that permit Ae. Jones and Pilitt working with Ae. Many females tumbled or somersaulted upon landing and only fed when tilted uphill on the downward sloping forearm of a host, inferring that feeding position and tarsal gripping had a direct effect on success.

Ultrastructural examination of membrane surfaces revealed a greatly textured surface seen only on the large sausage membrane, one predicted to facilitate tarsal gripping Fig. Speculating that this netting should have provided extra tarsal gripping texture, we concluded that feeding position takes priority over surface texture.

Behavioral differences between Ae. Bovine collagen sausage casings provide an effective method to deliver an infectious blood meal, and small sausage casings are valuable because less stock virus is needed for calculating a high titer in 15 mL total volume.Rory Gerberg and MaryRose Mazzola, candidates for master’s degrees in public policy at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, are co-coordinators for the student group Harvard Students Demand.

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As mosquito saliva collection is extremely laborious and inefficient, most research groups prefer to work on mosquito salivary glands (SGs). Thus, SG protein integrity is a critical factor in obtaining meaningful data from immunological and biochemical analysis.

What roles do mesolimbic and neostriatal dopamine systems play in reward? Do they mediate the hedonic impact of rewarding stimuli?

Do they mediate hedonic reward learning and associative prediction? Our review of the literature, together with results of a new study of residual reward capacity after dopamine depletion, indicates the answer to both questions is `no'.

Differences in blooding success in response to feeding position further separates the behavior attributes of two Aedine species. Blood meal presentation facilitates gravity and we suggest this is a deciding factor in the feeding success of Ae.

albopictus. Hydraulic models are an essential tool in understanding wastewater collection system behavior for system design. Wastewater Collection System Modeling and Design will guide users through the model-building process and the practical application of models to address real-world challenges.

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