Background[ edit ] Jeremy Bentham proposed the panopticon as a circular building with an observation tower in the centre of an open space surrounded by an outer wall. This wall would contain cells for occupants.
Panopticism Summary Foucault begins with a description of measures to be taken against the plague in the seventeenth century: Processes of quarantine and purification operate. The plague is met by order. Lepers were also separated from society, but the aim behind this was to create a pure community.
The plague measures aim at a disciplined community. The plague stands as an image against which the idea of discipline was created.
The existence of a whole set of techniques and institutions for measuring and supervising abnormal beings brings into play the disciplinary mechanisms created by the fear of the plague.
All modern mechanisms for controlling abnormal individuals derive from these. Foucault then discusses Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon, a building with a tower at the center from which it is possible to see each cell in which a prisoner or schoolboy is incarcerated. Visibility is a trap.
Each individual is seen but cannot communicate with the warders or other prisoners. The crowd is abolished. The panopticon induces a sense of permanent visibility that ensures the functioning of power. Bentham decreed that power should be visible yet unverifiable. The prisoner can always see the tower but never knows from where he is being observed.
The possibility that the panopticon is based on the royal menagerie at Versailles is raised. The Panopticon allows on to do the work of a naturalist: It is also a laboratory of power, in which experiments are carried out on prisoners and staff.
The plague-stricken town and the panopticon represent transformations of the disciplinary programme. The first case is an exceptional situation, where power is mobilized against an extraordinary evil. The second is a generalized model of human functioning, a way of defining power relations in everyday life.
The Panopticon is not a dream building, but a diagram of power reduced to its ideal form. It perfects the operations of power by increasing the number of people who can be controlled, and decreasing the number needed to operate it. It gives power over people's minds through architecture.
As it can be inspected from outside, there is no danger of tyranny. The panopticon was destined to spread throughout society. It makes power more economic and effective.
It does this to develop the economy, spread education and improve public morality, not to save society. The panopticon represents the subordination of bodies that increases the utility of power while dispensing with the need for a prince.
Bentham develops the idea that disciplines could be dispersed throughout society. He provides a formula for the functioning of a society that is penetrated by disciplinary mechanisms. There are two images of discipline: The move from one to the other represents the formation in the seventeenth and eighteenth century of a disciplinary society.
Other increasingly profound processes operated: We can talk of the formation of a disciplinary society in the movement from enclosed disciplines to an infinitely extendible "panopticism". The formation of a disciplinary society is connected to several historical processes:The panoptic arrangement provides the formula for this generalization.
It programmes, at the level of an elementary and easily transferable mechanism, the basic functioning of a society penetrated through and through with disciplinary mechanisms.
There are two images, then, of discipline. The erosion of discipline in society has its most powerful roots in the home and the school, since these are the institutions which have the most powerful formative influence upon the child.
Permissive child-rearing practices, have come into vogue due to the influence of modern psychology, have imparted the false notion that disciplining the child, and particularly punishment, is to be contrasted with love.
Essay on Discipline in Society In their own society they framed their own rules and a code of conduct that regulated relationship between man and man, man and woman, parents and their children, family and society and .
Panopticism is a social theory named after the Panopticon, originally developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault in his book Discipline and Punish. The "panopticon" refers to an experimental laboratory of power in which behaviour could be modified, and Foucault viewed the panopticon as a symbol of the disciplinary society of surveillance.
At the core of Foucault’s picture of modern disciplinary society are three primary techniques of control: hierarchical observation, normalizing judgment, and the examination. Mechanisms of power and knowledge have assumed responsibility for the life process in order to optimize, control, and modify it. Michel Foucault’s . Panoptic Performativity and School Inspection Regimes: Disciplinary Mechanisms and Life under Special Measures. Perryman, Jane. Journal of Education Policy, v21 n2 p Mar This paper looks at Ofsted and particularly special measures regimes as part of a disciplinary mechanism. It examines issues such as school effectiveness . Panopticism is a social theory named after the Panopticon, originally developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault in his book Discipline and Punish. The "panopticon" refers to an experimental laboratory of power in which behaviour could be modified, and Foucault viewed the panopticon as a symbol of the disciplinary society of surveillance.
Discipline does not mean only training of mind and character for self-control, "habit of obedience and observance of rules and laws. The aim of discipline has always been accommodation, integration and complete identification with the existing social relationship not alienation from .
Rather, the disciplinary society is the effect of micro mechanisms of power and has itself to be distinguished from a type of power that donated the name: discipline does not refer to an institution, but designates a technology of power.