He is currently the Executive Director and Chief Information Officer, and has served the Company for more than seven years. Prior to joining the company, Mr. He is also a member of the Board of Trustees of Yayasan Lim Goh Tong, a family foundation set up for charitable purposes. In her free time, she consults for an independent culture publication, Popspoken.
The Concept of Discrimination What is discrimination? More specifically, what does it mean to discriminate against some person or group of persons? It is best to approach this question in stages, beginning with an answer that is a first approximation and then introducing additions, qualifications, and refinements as further questions come into view.
In fact, the core human rights documents fail to define discrimination at all, simply providing non-exhaustive lists of the grounds on which discrimination is to be prohibited. Left unaddressed is the question of what discrimination itself is.
Any viable account of what discrimination is will regard it as consisting of actions, practices, or policies that are—in some appropriate sense—based on the perceived social group to which those discriminated against belong. Thus, groups based on race, religion and gender qualify as potential grounds of discrimination in any modern society, but groups based on the musical or culinary Concepts of belonging seen in andrew of persons would typically not so qualify.
Discrimination against persons, then, is necessarily oriented toward them based on their membership in a certain type of social group. But it is also necessary that the discriminatory conduct impose some kind of disadvantage or harm on the persons at whom it is directed.
In this connection, consider the landmark opinion of the U. Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education, holding that de jure racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. Thus, the court rules that segregation amounts to illegal discrimination against black children because it imposes on them educational and psychological disadvantages.
Additionally, as Brown makes clear, the disadvantage imposed by discrimination is to be determined relative to some appropriate comparison social group. Typically, the relevant comparison group is part of the same society as the disadvantaged group, or at least it is governed by the same overarching political structure.
In Brown, the relevant comparison group consisted of white citizens. Accordingly, it would be mistaken to think that the black citizens of Kansas who brought the lawsuit were not discriminated against because they were treated no worse than blacks in South Africa were being treated under apartheid.
Blacks in South Africa were not the proper comparison class.
The appropriate comparison class is determined by normative principles. American states are obligated to provide their black citizens an education that is no worse than what they provide to their white citizens; any comparison with the citizens or subjects of other countries is beside the point.
It should also be noted that, whether or not American states have an obligation to provide an education to any of their citizens, if such states provide an education to their white citizens, then it is discriminatory for the states to fail to provide an equally good education to their black citizens.
And if states do have an obligation to provide an education to all their citizens, then giving an education to whites but not blacks would constitute a double-wrong against blacks: Discrimination is inherently comparative, and the Brown case seems to suggest that what counts in the comparison is not how well or poorly a person or group is treated on some absolute scale, but rather how well she is treated relative to some other person.
In other words, the harm of discrimination lies in the very act itself of racially separating black and white children, quite apart from the educational or psychological impact of the separation.
On this understanding, treating blacks differently from whites amounts to discrimination, even if they are treated as well as whites. However, there is a critical problem with the view that the essence of discrimination is differential treatment rather than disadvantageous treatment.
If this view were correct, then, under Jim Crow segregation, not only blacks but also whites would be victims of discrimination. Differential treatment is symmetrical: The system arguably held back economic progress for everyone in the South, but that point is quite different from the implausible claim that everyone was a victim of discrimination.
Accordingly, it is better to think of discrimination in terms of disadvantageous treatment rather than simply differential treatment. Discrimination imposes a disadvantage on certain persons relative to others, and those who are treated more favorably are not to be seen as victims of discrimination.
An act can both be discriminatory and, simultaneously, confer an absolute benefit on those discriminated against, because the conferral of the benefit might be combined with conferring a greater benefit on the members of the appropriate comparison group.
In such a case, the advantage of receiving an absolute benefit is, at the same time, a relative disadvantage or deprivation. For example, consider the admissions policy of Harvard University in the early twentieth century, when the university had a quota on the number of Jewish students.
Harvard was guilty of discriminating against all Jewish applicants on account of their religion. Yet, the university still offered the applicants something of substantial value, viz.The opposite is a fixed mindset, where intelligence is seen as unchangeable.
A student who claims, “I’m just bad at math,” would be demonstrating a fixed mindset point of view, whereas a student who says, “I can strengthen my math skills through practice,” would be advocating a growth mindset.
Andrew Strathern and Pamela J. Stewart Belonging: Hmong Concepts of Belonging 34 v nibbs 00 fmt auto 2/20/14 PM Page v. Chapter 2 · Two Hmong Resettlement Communities: selves have used here, transplacement seen as a process of initiation is gradu-.
Identifying and relating biological concepts in the Catalogue of Life Andrew C Jones1*, Richard J White1 and Ewen R Orme1,2 It can be seen that the catalogue can be used as a thesaurus to generate alternative classification includes three of the species belonging to the genus Drosera.
Note that one of the species in. Coffee & Concepts.
Innovation is often seen as the realm of the elite, the brilliant, or the privileged. Yet some of the most incredible ideas have come from ordinary people who were given both the encouragement and opportunity to become extraordinary. Andrew Crome, Manchester Metropolitan University, History Department, Faculty Member.
Studies Renaissance Studies, Eschatology and Apocalypticism, and Millenarianism. I am currently working on two projects. The first is a book on the links between. The Athlete (Andrew): Andrew shows the frustration-aggression principle when he gets into an altercation with Bender.
The frustration-aggression principle is the principle that frustration creates anger which can generate aggression.